History & Overview
The Orient undoubtedly gave the world this little philosophical fellow, but when – it appears to be impossible to say. The dogs resembling the modern Pug were known in China as “Foo” or “Fu” dogs as early as several hundred years before the Christian era. However, there is no doubt that the Pug breed also appeared in Russia and France at an early date.
Originating in China, this handsome toy dog became very popular in England. In 1882, the first British Pug-dog club was formed and is still active. One of the first breeders of Pugs in the United States was Dr. M.H. Cryer, who imported his Pugs from England. The American Kennel Club accepted the breed in 1885, and after that, the popularity of Pugs grew. The ancient and modern Pug are easily recognizable as a breed.
The Pug is the largest member of the well known Toy breed group. With an average height of 8 inches and a weight of 13 pounds, Pugs are more than a handful of dog. In personality, this dog is the perfect household companion – patient, non-aggressive, good-natured and incredibly tolerant with children. Furthermore, he is practically odor-free, requires little grooming and is not as vocal as some other small dogs.
Pug is very intelligent, exceptionally clean and completely free of “doggy” odor. His coat is short, and he sheds very little. He does not drool, as so many short-faced dogs do, and he is very easy to train. Pug is an excellent watchdog, a great playmate for children and also a gentle and quiet companion for elderly people. So, you must have a Pug!
There is probably no other breed of dog whose fundamental characteristics have remained as constant over an unknown number of centuries as that of the Pug. However, the Pug of today shows marked improvement in symmetry of body due to selective breeding.
At one time the ears of the Pug were cropped, but today the Pug has his beautiful black, velvety soft ears left just as nature intended. One cannot ask for a more accomodating companion than a Pug. He should be protected from extremes of heat and cold.
Know Health Risks
Pugs are not free from health problems, though. Eye and breathing problems run in this breed, as well as skin infections. Pugs can also suffer from a fatal disease specific to their breed called Pug Dog Encephalitis, which is a chronic form of granulomatous meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain). The disease progresses rapidly, and there is currently no known cause or cure.
At A Glance
Mops, Carlin (France), Carlino (Italy), Mops Hund (Germany), Mops (Sweden), Doguillo (Spain)
Country of Origin:
China, Patronage – Great Britain
FCI Classification: Group 9 – Companion and Toy Dogs; Small Molossian type dogs (without working trial)
AKC Classification: Toy Grou
Small. Weight: 14 – 18 pounds for males or females. The FCI. standard is based on the standard of the member club of the country of origin or patronage – Great Britain and its weight requirements are 14 – 18 pounds.
- Colors vary slightly in breed standards. Acceptable colors include: apricot, apricot fawn, silver, silver fawn, and black. The mask and trace (black line extended from occiput to twist) should be as dark as possible.
- FCI standard colors: silver, apricot, fawn or black. Muzzle or mask, ears, moles on cheeks, thumb mark or diamond on forehead and trace as black as possible.
12 – 15 years
Weekly brushing to remove dead hair, daily cleaning of facial wrinkles, regular eye and teeth cleaning and nail trimming.
Heavy. Pugs will leave hair on everything you own.
Pugs are loyal, playful, eager to please, friendly with everyone.
Pugs get along very well with other animals.
Suitability for Children:
They love to play with children and are wonderfully tolerant of kids of all ages.
Pugs need 40 – 60 minutes daily exercise.
The Pug is known to be stubborn and may take some effort to housebreak.
Health & Behavioral Issues:
Pug Dog Encephalitis is an inflammatory disease of the brain affecting Pug dogs of either sex. The disease used to be considered unique to the Pug breed. However, a similar disease has been reported recently in Maltese, Pekingese, and Yorkshire Terrier breeds. If a dog of less than 1 or greater than 5 years of age suffers persistent seizures, it should be thoroughly examined and tested for these neurological disorders. More about Encephalitis
This crippling health problem is observed more often in large breeds. However, it occurs in almost every breed, including Pug. The cause is unknown though it is believed to be hereditary, and as yet there is no cure. In general, hip dysplasia can be described as a poor fit between the two bones of the hip joint – the femur and the acetabulum – and is caused by malformation of one or the other. Either the femur’s head is flattened, causing it to slip out of the socket, or the acetabulum’s shallowness causes the femur to slip out. HD causes stiffness in the hindlegs, considerable pain in the more severe cases, and difficulty of movement. It generally manifests itself in puppyhood and can be noticed by the time the young dog is two months of age.
The patellar or kneecap is usually located directly in the centre of the knee joint. Luxation, or dislocation of the patellar, occurs when the patellar slides out of its groove. In most cases, luxation is a congenital condition (that appears at birth), but it may appear later. It is thought to be inherited, although the exact mode of transmission has not been determined. In some cases, the condition is acquired through trauma. An affected dog can lame occasionally, or walk on three legs. Sometimes, a dog will show pain and hold his leg up. Surgery is the treatment of choice, as it is a serious health problem.
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCP disease) is a bone disease of young, small breed dogs, usually those weighing less than 24 pounds, in which the growing end of a bone dies and then is gradually replaced over a number of years. The immediate cause of bone death is the loss of blood supply. Both sexes are affected, but males suffer 4 times more often than females. LCP usually occurs in puppies between four and twelve months of age.
Intervertebral disk (IVD) disease is a common disorder manifested by acute pain, loss of movement coordination, and paralysis. It commonly occurs in certain breeds of dogs called chondrodystrophoid breeds, such as:
- American Cocker Spaniel
- Basset Hound
- French Bulldog
- Lhasa Apso
- Shih Tzu
- Welsh Corgi
Stenotic Nares is a condition where the narrow, restricted nostril puts a strain on the dog’s system and can lead to the enlargement of the heart. When the surgery is performed, the veterinarian removes a portion of the nasal cartilage to enlarge the nasal openings. In this disorder, the openings to the nostrils are too small, and the puppy has a tough time breathing through the nose. Stenotic nares are an inherited defect. Early surgical intervention can provide adequate airway flow that helps prevent secondary problems like tracheal collapse and chronic bronchitis.
Dog cleft palate is a failure of the two sides of the palate to fuse correctly during the embryonic stage of development. It can just be the soft tissue, in which case it is only a cosmetic defect, but if the hard palate is affected, a puppy usually dies. It can be congenital or result from intoxication resulting from using steroids (cortisones), Vitamin A in overdosages, and some antibiotics. A cleft palate can be corrected surgically. However, the puppy must be old enough to undergo anesthesia.
Dry Eye Syndrome or Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS)
Dry Eye syndrome or Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS) is a common, potentially blinding condition that develops due to a decrease of tear production in the eye of Pug and is a serious, serious health problem. More about Dry Eye Syndrome or Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
A portosystemic shunt is an abnormal vessel that allows blood to bypass the liver. As a result, the blood is not cleansed by one of the body’s filters: the liver, which results in neurological diseases. Dogs with PSS have small liver, large kidneys, and stones in bladder or kidneys. Shunts are significantly more likely to be found in female than male dogs and cats.
Tracheal collapse is a narrowing of the trachea (windpipe) due to the softening of the cartilage rings in the trachea in the Pug breed and other toy and miniature dog breeds. Symptoms include a cough, especially after exercise, noisy breathing, and gagging. Treatment consists of conservative therapy or, in severe cases, surgery and is a serious health problem. More about Tracheal Collapse
The Pug is one of the easiest dogs to groom and to keep in good condition. For external beauty, bright, sparkling eyes and lustrous, rich coat, the dog must be clean and wholesome inside. Good food, clean, fresh water, attention to the regularity of bowel movements and plenty of rest, exercise, fresh air and sunshine will make your grooming problems no problems at all.
If the coat is in good condition, you will find a minimum of shedding. Brush a few minutes vigorously daily, using a good stiff natural bristle brush. The Pug will love it, and the “chore” becomes a pleasure. Do not use a wire brush on a Pug. Frequent baths are unnecessary. If your dog has been romping outdoors and is dusty or has acquired some healthy mud on him, rub his coat with a rough towel wrung out in hot water. Rub vigorously and then dry. When the coat is dry, brush well and watch it shine.
Use shampoos without medications or alcohol. Before starting the shampooing, have on hand the shampoo, wash cloth, several turkish towels, a small jar with absorbent cotton, cotton balls, and a small jar of baby oil. Before starting the bathing, gently place a little wad of cotton in the dog’s ears to keep the soap and water from entering the ear canal. Wash the face and the head with the wash cloth, being sure to clean the fold and crease over the nose thoroughly; then rinse well. Now, use a nozzle spray and wet the dog thoroughly from his neck down. Apply the shampoo, lather well over and rub. The key here is to rinse very well until the coat “squeaks” when you run your hand over it. Rub with a turkish towel to dry the dog. After the dog is dry, brush thoroughly.
Check the dog’s ears. If they are dirty, remove the accumulation of dirt and wax with a cotton ball. Do not “dig” into your dog’s ears, as you might injure the delicate membrane. Gently pull the ear flap upward and outward and remove the dirt that is easily discernible in the ear. If the ear appears somewhat irritated, a little powdered boric acid may be applied inside the ear. If that does not remedy the situation, consult your veterinarian. Sometimes, an accumulation of moist brown material may indicate ear mites. They can cause serious damage to the ear if allowed to go unchecked.
A Pug’s eyes are prominent and subject to injury to a greater extent than the eyes of most other dog breeds. When grooming your dog, wipe the eyes gently with cotton moistened in a warm, weak boric acid solution, then dry carefully. If you notice a bluish or grayish cloud over an eye, a very small indentation, or any other abnormality, consult your veterinarian immediately! Sometimes these ulcers are an aftermath of a serious distemper attack or encephalitis. Even if your Pug is the only pet in the household, keep his nails trimmed.